Edorium Journal of

Tumor Biology

 
  Table of Contents    
Original Article
 
Angiogenic cytokines: IL-6, sIL-6R, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, and PDGF-AB in multiple myeloma patients depending on the stage of the disease
Joanna Kamińska1, Olga M. Koper1, Violetta Dymicka-Piekarska2, Elżbieta Motybel3, Janusz Kłoczko4, Halina Kemona5
1PhD, Researcher, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.
2Assistant Professor, Researcher, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.
3MS, Researcher, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.
4Head of the Department, Department of Hematology, Clinical Hospital of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.
5Head of the Department, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.

Article ID: :100003T09JK2015
doi:10.5348/T09-2015-3-OA-2

Address correspondence to:
Joanna Kamińska
Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Medical University of Bialystok, ul. Waszyngtona 15A
15-269 Bialystok
Poland
Tel/Fax: + 48 857468584
Mob: 508 739 863

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How to cite this article
Kamińska J, Koper OM, Dymicka-Piekarska V, Motybel E, Kloczko J, Kemona H. Angiogenic cytokines: IL-6, sIL-6R, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, and PDGF-AB in multiple myeloma patients depending on the stage of the disease. Edorium J Tumor Bio 2015;2:11–19.


Abstract
Aims: Angiogenesis plays an important role for growth, progression and metastasis of various cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, the aim of the study was the evaluation of concentrations of chosen angiogenic cytokines: interleukin 6 (IL-6), its soluble receptor (sIL-6R), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) in patient with newly diagnosed MM depending on the stage of the disease and as compared to the control group.
Methods: The study group consisted of newly diagnosed MM patients prior to treatment and categorized depending on the Durie and Salmon staging system. The controls consisted of healthy subjects. Angiogenic cytokines were determined with the use of ELISA method.
Results: Serum concentrations of all angiogenic cytokines analyzed were significantly higher in the whole study group as compared to the controls. Moreover, concentrations of all proteins tested significantly increasing with the stage of MM. Additionally, all cytokines tested positively correlated with the percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for all cytokines analyzed were significantly higher than AUC=0.500.
Conclusion: Concentrations of angiogenic cytokines analyzed were significantly higher in MM patients as compared to the healthy subjects. Additionally, the concentrations of proteins tested were significantly increasing with the stage of the disease. Since the progression of MM proceeds at the same time as angiogenesis it allowed us to hypothesize that cytokines analyzed take part in bone marrow neovascularization. The areas under ROC curves analysis may indicate that these cytokines have potential clinical significance in MM.

Keywords: Angiogenic cytokines, Multiple myeloma, Platelet-derived growth factor-AB, Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

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Author Contributions:
Joanna Kamińska – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Olga M. Koper – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Violetta Dymicka-Piekarska – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Elżbieta Motybel – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Janusz Kłoczko – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Halina Kemona – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2015 Joanna Kamińska et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



About The Authors

Joanna Kamińska is a Researcher at the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostic of the Medical University of Bialystok (Poland). She earned undergraduate degree PhD from the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostic of the Medical University of Bialystok (Poland). The aim of her doctoral thesis was the evaluation of the chosen thrombocytopoiesis parameters in multiple myeloma patients depending on the sex and the stage of the disease. She has published 15 research papers in national and international academic journals and authored three chapters in books. Her research interests include the angiogenesis, thrombopoiesis and the role of the platelets in multiple myeloma, the significance of chemokines-mediated inflammation in chosen diseases of the central nervous system and novels in laboratory examination of cerebrospinal fluid and other fluids from body cavities. In future, she intends to pursue the clinical significance of sCD40L in multiple myeloma and the role of platelet-monocyte aggregates as well as chosen chemokines in myocardial infarction. Moreover, she intends to pursue the role of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the diseases concerning the central nervous system in future.



Olga M. Koper is a Researcher at the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. She earned undergraduate degree PhD from the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostic of the Medical University of Bialystok (Poland). The aim of her doctoral thesis was the evaluation of the chosen thrombocytopoiesis parameters in type 2 diabetes patients depending on the glycosylated hemoglobin. She has published 13 research papers in national and international academic journals. She is the author of microscopic cells photos (these photos were presented on pages from 28 to 118 in the monographic book entitled "Body fluids- assay and interpretation" which is recommended by the Polish National Chamber of Laboratory Diagnosticians). Her areas of scientific interests include chosen thrombopoiesis parameters, markers of platelets activation and platelet morphology in type 2 diabetes depending on glycemic control as well as in multiple myeloma depending on the sex and the stage of the disease advancement. She intends to pursue the role of blood brain barrier (BBB) and chemokines in the diseases concerning the central nervous system in future.



Violetta Dymicka-Piekarska is Associate Professor, and is a Researcher at Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. She earned the undergraduate degree PhD from Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland and postgraduate degree form Associate Professor from Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. She has published 40 research papers in national and international academic journals and authored three books. Her research interests include platelet activation and function in colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction and inflammation, searching for new biomarkers in colorectal cancer. She intends to pursue platelet-monocyte aggregates assessed by flow cytometry and role of chemokines in MI in future.



Elzbieta Motybel is a researcher at Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics of Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. She earned the undergraduate degree MSc from the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics of Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. She has published 5 research papers in national and international academic journals. Her research interests include novel biomarkers in coronary heart disease. She intends to pursue the role of adhesion molecules in the prognosis of myocardial infarction in future.



Janusz Kloczko is received MD degree in 1973, PhD degree in 1979 and the title of professor in 1995, all from Medical Academy of Bialystok. He has published 206 research papers in national and international academic journals. Impact Factor of full papers is 271.057; H-index: 21; quotation: 2674. He is co-author of 6 books. The main research interest include blood coagulation and hematoproliferative disorders.



Halina Kemona is Professor Halina Kemona is Head of the Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. She earned the undergraduate degree PhD from Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland and postgraduate degree form Associate Professor from Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. She has published 192 research papers in national and international academic journals and authored 5 books. Her research interests include trombocytopoiesis, the role of platelets in non-specific immune response, activation and reactivity of platelets in the diseases of the circulatory system, neoplastic and parasitic diseases as well as the evaluation of the concentrations of adhesion molecules in different types of pathologic conditions. She intends to pursue platelet-monocyte aggregates assessed by flow cytometry and role of chemokines in MI in future.




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